As people fled from the increasingly barren and devastated Fertile Crescent, Bronze Age settlements began growing on the Mediterranean’s east end. During the Babylonian reign of , wood was extremely scarce and his agents were charged with finding more wood. Under Hammurabi, illegal woodcutting was a . The search for wood extended past deforested Lebanon to the Mediterranean’s periphery, and Crete’s inhabitants began to trade wood for luxury items with Near East civilizations. The nearly extinct Near East cedar was reserved for palaces and temples in Mesopotamia, but on Crete, cedar was so abundant that it was used for tool handles and had other mundane purposes. Trade with the Near East quickly boosted Crete from a forested hinterland, isolated in the eastern Mediterranean, into a powerful state, at least while its forests lasted. In early , wood was used lavishly. The Minoan success influenced the nearby Peloponnesian peninsula, and Mycenaean civilization began about 1600 BCE. Minoans developed the still-undeciphered script. Mycenaean Greeks developed , which has been largely decoded and ; it is likely that Linear A also was only accounting. About 1700 BCE, the Minoan palaces were destroyed, probably by an earthquake. The palaces were rebuilt on a grand scale, and settlements expanded in the Minoan golden age, which lasted about three centuries. Then a swift decline collapsed the Minoan civilization by 1200 BCE. Mycenaeans then annexed the island.
As scientists have been putting this picture together, one irony is that Cro-Magnons had black skin, and Neanderthals might have had light hair and eyes, as an adaptation to the cold climates that they lived in, as with Europeans today. It turns the racist aspect of on its head, and has been noted in some scientific corners. For the remainder of this essay, as all other human species were extinct but for the “hobbits” by 30 kya, the word “human” will refer to behaviorally modern .
In the historical period, when technologically advanced humans encountered less advanced ones, there was cultural and genetic interchange, but in the end, the technologically advanced peoples . If any place on Earth could have been used as an illustration of the climate change hypothesis for the megafauna extinctions, ice age Europe would have been it. Ice sheets extended so far southward that Neanderthals lived in relatively few refugia, but I highly doubt that it caused their extinction. Neanderthals lived for at least 300,000 years and survived radical climate changes just fine. Human-agency skeptics have invoked unusually violent climate changes that coincidentally appeared when behaviorally advanced humans arrived around the world, but that seems to be grasping at straws. Again, there is nothing climatically unique about the past 60,000 years, , so invoking climate-change effects for humans and animals that weathered the ice age’s vagaries just fine seems to be a huge conjecture that may be politically motivated. Human-agency skeptics have crafted different kinds of climate explanations for each major extinction, such as drying in Australia, getting colder and dryer in Europe, or getting when most of the extinctions happened. At , climate was a proximate cause, not the ultimate one. The ultimate one was people virtually every time.
Athens began a war with the Spartan-led Peloponnesian peoples that lasted from 431 BCE to 404 BCE. The war was largely another naval one, and fighting over forest access was the prominent dynamic; Spartans invaded and leveled its trees, turning it into a barren wasteland. In the aftermath of Attica’s destruction, a disease broke out and accompanied Attica’s refugees to an increasingly overcrowded Athens and initiated one of the world’s first recorded epidemics, today called the . Historians and scientists have as to the disease’s identity.
[tags: destructive earthquake, tectonic plate]
In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .
FREE Essay on Earthquakes and Its Dreadful Effects
Certain disasters stem from many small problems conspiring to cause one very large problem. For want of a nail, the war was lost; for fifteen independently insignificant errors, the jetliner was lost. Subduction-zone earthquakes operate on the opposite principle: one enormous problem causes many other enormous problems. The shaking from the Cascadia quake will set off landslides throughout the region—up to thirty thousand of them in Seattle alone, the city’s emergency-management office estimates. It will also induce a process called liquefaction, whereby seemingly solid ground starts behaving like a liquid, to the detriment of anything on top of it. Fifteen per cent of Seattle is built on liquefiable land, including seventeen day-care centers and the homes of some thirty-four thousand five hundred people. So is Oregon’s critical energy-infrastructure hub, a six-mile stretch of Portland through which flows ninety per cent of the state’s liquid fuel and which houses everything from electrical substations to natural-gas terminals. Together, the sloshing, sliding, and shaking will trigger fires, flooding, pipe failures, dam breaches, and hazardous-material spills. Any one of these second-order disasters could swamp the original earthquake in terms of cost, damage, or casualties—and one of them definitely will. Four to six minutes after the dogs start barking, the shaking will subside. For another few minutes, the region, upended, will continue to fall apart on its own. Then the wave will arrive, and the real destruction will begin.
An essay or paper on Earthquakes and Its Dreadful Effects
To see the full scale of the devastation when that tsunami recedes, you would need to be in the international space station. The inundation zone will be scoured of structures from California to Canada. The earthquake will have wrought its worst havoc west of the Cascades but caused damage as far away as Sacramento, California—as distant from the worst-hit areas as Fort Wayne, Indiana, is from New York. FEMA expects to coördinate search-and-rescue operations across a hundred thousand square miles and in the waters off four hundred and fifty-three miles of coastline. As for casualties: the figures I cited earlier—twenty-seven thousand injured, almost thirteen thousand dead—are based on the agency’s official planning scenario, which has the earthquake striking at 9:41 A.M. on February 6th. If, instead, it strikes in the summer, when the beaches are full, those numbers could be off by a horrifying margin.