But in medieval Europe, the , beginning with Germanic lords as Rome was falling. Not only did the watermill spread throughout Europe, but new mills such as the and appeared. Today’s France is where most medieval mill innovations appeared, but watermills became universal on the streams and rivers of Europe. In 800, only a few watermills existed in Western Europe, but by 1000 there were hundreds. The of 1086 recorded nearly six thousand watermills in England alone, and the true number was some thousands more. The had 10 thousand watermills at that time, and their number doubled in the next two centuries, as did England’s. Each mill produced at least two-to-three horsepower, which was the equivalent labor of about 50 men. In 11th-century France, its mills produced the labor of a quarter of its population. Medieval European watermills produced the work of millions of people and reduced the need for slaves. It was a prelude to the Industrial Revolution. When Columbus sailed in 1492, watermills performed the work of at least 10 million people in Europe, which had a population of about 75 million. When watermill sites became filled, Europeans began using windmills, which first appeared in France in 1080, although the first . The social organization of medieval Europe was ; peasants labored for landowners in return for a portion of the harvest. The watermill became the center of a struggle between feudal and Church authorities and the peasantry; the windmill was established partly to circumvent lordly claims on waters that passed over their lands, as nobody yet owned the air.
Few dates before 1 CE will be used beyond this point in this essay, so for the remainder of this essay, unless "BCE" is applied to them, all dates will be CE dates, with “CE” dropped from them.
I earlier compared people from different epochs. That stone tool Tesla what his/her invention would lead to a half-million years later, and members of the founding group could not have comprehended . Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into Rome in 100 CE or London in 1500 CE. History has some relevant examples. When , about the last of his people, came out of hiding in his dying world and strode into civilization, it caused a sensation. He soon died of tuberculosis, but his encounters with civilization were recorded. He attended an opera, and the popular account portrayed his rapport with the diva, but Ishi actually stared in amazement at the , as he had never before seen so many people in one place. When he saw an airplane in flight, he laughed in amazement. Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into imperial Rome. That hunter-gatherer had probably seen dogs, but horses, cows, sheep, and the like would have been astounding, and watching a horse or ox pull a cart would have been stunning. Crops would have been an amazing sight. Imagine that hunter-gatherer at the . The building and crowd alone would have boggled his mind, even if the festivities might have been horrifically familiar. Metals and glass would have seemed magical. Writing had not yet been invented in that hunter-gatherer’s world, so even the concept would have been difficult. Imagine him trying to learn math. There were no more singing and dancing religious rituals, and no wide-open spaces to hunt a meal. Imagine that hunter-gatherer visiting a Roman bath. Hot water alone would have been surreal, while the cavorting might have been delightful. What would his reaction have been to Rome’s markets? Rome was also loud and could be hellish, so the hunter-gatherer might have longed to flee to the countryside before long, but the countryside would have little resembled the one he knew. He obviously would not have understood anything that anybody said, but they were also all members of , so he would have seen many behaviors and traits that he eventually understood. But how long would his shock have lasted? Could he have really ever adapted to Roman society (if he did not quickly end up on the arena’s stage as a novelty)? Another surprise for that hunter-gatherer would be seeing people interact who did not know each other. People were interacting with members and not trying to kill them on sight, which became standard behavior in most hunter-gatherer societies that battled over territory (their food supply). Civilized life was all made possible by the local and stable energy source that agriculture provided, which led to an epoch that changed very little until the next energy source was tapped: the hydrocarbon energy that powered the Industrial Revolution. The next chapter will survey the developments that led to that momentous event. It is the only Epochal Event with historical documentation that showed how it developed, which is easier to reconstruct than examining stones and bones.
For example, if students work cooperatively or collaboratively, then students within the group will have an increased learning retention and increased critical thinking (Chiriac & Frykedal, 2011).
The Law of Multiplication of Work
Bennett and Dunne (1992), and Galton and Williamson explain that cooperative group work occurs when students divide the work load in a group and each individual completes a different part of the assignment....
[tags: Group Team Work Conflict Management]
. Bruce W. Tuckman produced one of the most quoted models of group development in the 1960s. We consider his contribution and the model’s continuing use.
Group therapy can be helpful in an assortment of ways.
It would be wrong to say that since the non-zero rationals form a group under multiplication then the origin of the group concept must go back to the beginnings of mathematics.
"Group work is defined by a common task ..Writing an appears to be simple because it is an issue that is almost trivial to students and the rest of the world. Who doesnt appreciate group work? Whether in learning or places of work, group plays a major role in achieving a common goal. For this reason students are encouraged to form groups for effective studies. Generally, group work has advantages and disadvantages as described in this article. Nonetheless, the pros exceed the cons.
Free group work Essays and PapersRather we must take the view that group theory is the abstraction of ideas that were common to a number of major areas which were being studied essentially simultaneously.
Free group work papers, ..The three main areas that were to give rise to group theory are:-
(1) Geometry has been studied for a very long time so it is reasonable to ask what happened to geometry at the beginning of the 19th Century that was to contribute to the rise of the group concept.