Objectives - To document elevations of high mud marks along both banks of the streams affected by mudflows from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.
Problem - The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mt. St. Helens caused mudflows along six major streams--the Cowlitz, Toutle, North Fork Toutle, South Fork Toutle, and Muddy Rivers, and Pine Creek. A number of scientific studies and investigations are planned or underway to document the extent, dynamics, and effects of the mudflows, and many of those studies have certain common data requirements. A project is already in progress to document the elevations of mudflows and the detrimental effects of sediment deposits on flood elevations in the Cowlitz and lower Toutle Rivers. On the other four streams, however, the elevations of the mudflows still need to be determined.
Problem - The mudflows that accompanied the eruption of Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980 destroyed the continuous-record stream-gaging stations on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers. The mudflow also deposited sediment in the channels and on the overbanks, and in some cases scoured the stream channels, thus changing the stage-discharge ratings for those sites. The stations are being replaced and additional new stations installed to monitor the effects of present mudflows and future changes. Data from these stations are being telemetered on a real-time basis for hazard warning. Because changes may occur rapidly, the usual process for rating the stations will not be adequate; without accurate ratings, data may be misinterpreted.
Mount St. Helens is located in Skamania County, California. The mountain erupted first in 1980 when it caused extensive damage to the local economy, killing 57 people (Nash, 571). In relation to other Cascade volcanoes, Mt. St. Helens is geologically young given that it was formed about 40,000 years ago, but it is the most active having erupted many times with the last one being in 2004 (Wirts and Dale 34). Unlike other eruptions that take less than a year, the major two Mt. St. Helen’s eruptions each reported some form of activity over a span of five years.
Category: Nature Volcanoes Eruptions Essays; Title: Mount St. Helens
On the morning of May 18, 1980, in southwestern Washington State, an earthquake on the northern flank of Mt. St. Helens released an immense landslide, a blast of superheated gas and rock, and a . The eruption, which killed fifty-seven people and destroyed two hundred and fifty homes, was the most destructive volcanic event in U.S. history, and when it began most Washingtonians tried to get as far away from the mountain as they could. But Jerry Franklin, then a forestry professor at Oregon State University, was already wondering how to get closer. Ecologists had plenty of theories about how natural systems reacted to large, intense disturbances; here, at last, was a chance to test them.
Mt St Helens Essay - 1130 Words
Problem - A Mt. St. Helens program has been initiated to take advantage of a rare opportunity to measure and document the effects of volcanic emissions on the quality and character or atmospheric deposition. In the State of Washington 12 sites have been established for the collection and monitoring of precipitation chemistry. Currently the largest network of precipitation chemistry in the United States is the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). There is a need to standardize data-collection and quality-assurance procedures to insure data comparability to NADP.
Kilauea and Mt St Helens Comparison Essay - 803 …
Problem - The volcanic activity of Mt. St. Helens has resulted in the deposition of large amounts of sediment and ash in the Toutle River basin and in the alteration of the runoff and sediment transport characteristics of the river. Winter precipitation may transport large volumes of sediment through the Toutle basin and subsequently into the already sediment-laden Cowlitz River. This would result in a decreased carrying capacity and an increased potential for flooding. Estimates of daily hourly values for runoff and sediment volumes need to be projected for the Toutle River for various magnitudes of future precipitation so that the effects of inflow to Cowlitz River can be evaluated.